What are UTIs ?
The urinary tract includes the kidney , ureter bladder and urethra . The most common problem is cystitis which affects the bladder . The bacteria most likely to cause urinary tract infections are Escherichia Coli normally found in the bowel . If large numbers get into the urethra parts of the urinary tract can be infected. If the infection remains in the urethra it is called urethritis and if spread to the kidney it is pyelonephritis . Infection can take hold in a number off ways including poor toilet hygiene sexual intercourse and child birth.
Urinary tract infections are less common in men and in childhood. Urinary tract infections more commonly affects women, and this is partly because a woman utethra is shorter and nearer the and and so is vulnerable to infections. sometimes bacteria from the digestive tract can find their way into opening of the urethra where they start to multiply. This causes infection and inflammation. These bacteria are usually Escherichia coli (E.coli) organisms, normally found in the bowel, where they are harmless. Occasionally bacteria make their way even further up the urinary tract and travel up the ureter into the kidney , where they cause an infection known as pyelonephritis. Other organisms can be responsible for causing cystitis and other urinary tract infections, such as those aquire during sexual intercourse can prevent infections .
Who are at risk for UTIs?
Postmenopausal women these are women have been through menopause and are prone to cystitis because of the lack of oestrogen in their bodies causes the lining of the urethra to become thinner making easy for
Causes of UTIs
Normally urine is sterile it contains no fungi or bacteria . however sometimes the bacteria in our alimentary canal finds bacteria to attack .
2.Someone with an abnormality of the urinary tract example man with enlarged prostate gland which increases the risk of infection.
Women having oral sex the bacteria 3.E.coli can enter there urinary tract
4.People who are more prone to infections in general older people diabetes and anyone taking drugs that affects or suppress the immune system.
Signs and symptoms of UTIs
1.Burning sensation whenever you pass urine
2. The need to pass urine urgently and frequently.
3.Fever and chills
4.Lower abdominal pain
6.Cloudy or bloody urine
Symptoms 3 to 6 are related to bacterial infections and may indicate a more serious kidney infection.
Cystitis is a types of UTI
Your doctor may ask for a sample of your urine so that it can be tested for a variety of substances white blood cells ,red blood cells and protein. Such test are usually done quickly and results are also immediate. Depending on the situation your doctor may send the sample to a laboratory to determine the type of bacteria so as to know which antibiotic is effective. But some doctor issue antibiotics immediately and then prescribe the right antibiotic once the results from the lab have been issued. If the infection does not go away in a few days doctor may recommend a test call intravenous pyelogram (IVP) a form of X ray that shows the bladder, kidney and ureter.
1.Drinking plenty of fluids particularly in hot weather
2.Empty the bladder frequently
3. Urinate promptly after sexual intercourse to prevent infection
4.Avoid using bubble baths and vaginal deodorant
5.Wipe yourself after a bowel movement from front to back
6.Avoid using diaphragm and sperimcide cream for contraception.
Pyelonephritis another type of UTI
This is an infection that affects the kidney and is similar to cystitis. These symptoms include difficulty in urinating accompanied by burning sensation and and a pain in back and below the ribs which may also spread to the abdomen. In extreme cases , it causes vomiting and high fever.
The infection causes inflammation in parts of the kidney that collects urine the renal pelvis often accompanied by abscesses. It can be treated with antibiotics, but your doctor may advise further investigation to ensure there is no other underlying causes . If
Pyelonephritis is not treated , it may a serious condition called pyonephrosis or a large kidney abscess. Both may require surgery to correct them.
Treatment options for UTI
UTI can become worse very quickly causes more severe problems so it should be treated quickly. especially if you are pregnant, suffering from diabetes, high blood pressure or kidney disease .Treatment is often very straight forward. With cystitis it’s important to drink a lot of water as soon as it starts . Many women find cranberry juice low in sugar ease the discomfort and simple pain killers and anti inflammatory drug eases the pain and reduces the fever. A mild cystitis episode may pass off quickly with high fluid intake , but if the condition does not settle within 24 hours or if it worsens at all help sought .The infection will usually respond well to short course of antibiotics.