Before enumerating the advantages and disadvantages we have to make a brief definition of both systems, when we speak of direct current we refer to the electric charges that flow on a conductor in an invariant way, that is to say that they do not change their intensity in the course of time. The alternating current behaves differently, unlike the continuous or direct if its intensity varies as time passes, this is because the electric charges change their direction of circulation in the conductor periodically.
If we have to graph each of these systems we could do it in the following way.
Direct or direct current
Over time this current intensity remains constant throughout a period, this type of current behavior have their advantages and disadvantages that we will list below.
As we said before the time the current intensity varies, this is very evident in the graph where you can see that the current intensity varies from a positive maximum value to another negative maximum value, in this case a graph Sinusoidal to graph the current, but the alternating current can have any form of wave, the form is not any restriction as long as this is maintained throughout an entire period.
Having said this, it is important to point out that all the energy that is supplied from storage devices such as the battery or the batteries is transferred as a direct current, whereas the energy coming from a hydroelectric plant and reaching the plugs Of our homes is transferred as an alternating current.
Knowing this let’s discuss some advantages and disadvantages of each of these systems.
Alternating current – characteristics and advantages
1 – The transportation of AC is more economical than continuous, the cost of reducing or raising AC voltages are less than DC. This is why households use AC power to transport energy from the hydroelectric power plants to our homes, it is necessary to raise the voltage at various points along the way and then reduce it to reach residential areas ( this is done to reduce losses Produced in the transport of energy )
2 – The wide range of voltages that are obtained by the use of the transformer.
3 – The machines that use alternating current are simple, robust and do not require much repair and maintenance during its use.
4 – The alternating current can be quickly converted to direct current with the help of rectifiers.
6 – When AC is supplied at high voltages in a long distance transmission, the line losses are lower when compared to a direct current transmission.
Direct current – advantages over alternating current
1 – The maximum value of the alternating current is very high and can sometimes be dangerous, so a higher insulation is required.
2 – While the direct current emits an electric shock that repels the human body, the alternating current attracts the person who touches it directly.
3 – Lower voltages can be used to transmit electricity through the wires, since they are less resistant to direct current.
4 – One of the main advantages is that direct current can be stored in batteries, this is undoubtedly a great advantage over AC.
5 – DC is much safer than AC