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Cytoplasm and Cytosol

Cytoplasm

In two fundamental compartments the eukaryotic cell is divided: the cytoplasm and the nucleus. While the content of the core is delimited and separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear envelope , the cytoplasm represents the cell content between this and the plasma membrane. The cytoplasm is composed of a liquid solution, the cytosol (from the Greek cytogene , sol solution, cytoplasmic solution) And other organelles (ribosomes) or organelles surrounded by membranes characteristic of the eukaryotic cell (endomembrane system, lysosomes ), peroxisomes , mitochondria and chloroplasts in plant cells) Immersed within it. The cytoskeleton is also distributed in the cytoplasm contributing to provide the cell its structure and shape, as well as the organization of certain intracellular movements and cellular locomotion. The centrosome is also immersed in the cytoplasm .

The cytosol
In spite of the compartmentalization of the cytoplasm, the cytosol (also called hyaloplasm or cytoplasmic matrix although increasingly disused), represents the internal liquid medium of the cytoplasm, which fills all the spaces outside the organelles and in which many functions occur Cytoplasmic. The content of the lumen of the membrane-separated compartments is therefore not considered part of the cytosol . The term intracellular fluidRefers to all fluids within a cell, both the cytosol and the fluid within all membranous organelles including the nucleus. The cytosol is the main fluid compartment of the cell, generally comprising more than 50% of the cell volume. The cytosol is the “soup” within which the different cellular organelles reside and where most of the metabolism takes place .

From a chemical composition point of view, the cytosol is primarily an aqueous medium(85% water) in which small organic substances (amino acids, glucose, ATP etc.) and inorganic substances (ions, mineral salts etc.) are dissolved, eg the cytosol has a higher concentration of K + ions and a lower concentration of Na + ions), although the most used image when referring to the cytosol is that of particles floating freely in water, the cytosol has a very high organization at the molecular level. The cytosol is a “jelly-like” fluid having a content of 20% protein. In which are dissolved many of the molecules that the cell needs for its metabolism, among them organic molecules that are intermediates of the metabolism. Thus, the cytosol is replete with proteins that direct (catalyze) and control cellular metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pentoses phosphate pathway, Amino acid activation, fatty acid synthesis, nucleotide synthesis, etc.), internal signal translation systems (eg second messengers, cAMP, cGMP, IP3-inositol triphosphate etc.), with intracellular signaling receptors (eg Transcription, protease kinases, etc …). Inclusions of reserve material: lipid and glycogen may also be found in the cytosol. In the cytosol are free ribosomes that perform the synthesis of proteins that will be distributed and destined to different cellular compartments (mitochondria, peroxisomes, nucleus). Transcription factors, protease kinases, etc.). Inclusions of reserve material: lipid and glycogen may also be found in the cytosol. In the cytosol are free ribosomes that perform the synthesis of proteins that will be distributed and destined to different cellular compartments (mitochondria, peroxisomes, nucleus). Transcription factors, protease kinases, etc.). Inclusions of reserve material: lipid and glycogen may also be found in the cytosol. In the cytosol are free ribosomes that perform the synthesis of proteins that will be distributed and destined to different cellular compartments (mitochondria, peroxisomes, nucleus).

The colloidal properties of the cell, such as the basic transformations of SOL-GEL; (A more fluid cytosol liquid solution) to “Gel” (a more rigid, solid and gelatinous cytosol) are basic for certain basic cellular activities such as changes in viscosity and intracellular movement of the cytoplasm in the form of currents Of cytosolic fluid (cyclosis or cellular streaming)The formation of the mitotic spindle and the cleavage (rupture) of the stem cell to give rise to two daughter cells during the cytokinesis phase of cell division (mitosis), synaptic growth and formation, And release of neurotransmitter vesicles. Sol-Gel transformations, which can occur rapidly (eg 40 Sol-gel cycles per second), are primarily dependent on the components of the cytosol, and are mainly caused by the controlled reactions of assembly and disassembly (dynamic remodeling) of elements of the cytoskeleton (Embedded in the cytosol) primarily microfilaments of Actin ) and microtubule and contractile associations of Actin-Myosin .

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