The advantages and disadvantages of asexual reproduction , typical of animals such as sponges, plants such as mitospores or microorganisms such as bacteria, will depend on several biological and environmental factors.
Asexual reproduction is characterized because the offspring arises from a single organism and inherits the genes of the progenitor. It does not involve the fusion of gametes and the number of chromosomes does not vary.
Asexual reproduction, when an organism reaches maturity, a cell or part of its body is detached. Thus a new individual is generated through the mitosis that is the segmentation of a cell. Each cell generated contains all chromosomes.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Asexual Reproduction
Asexual reproduction never involves reduction or ploidy. The progeny will only have the characteristics of the parent, except in the case of automixis.
It is the most common process by which unicellular organisms reproduce. Rarely occurs among multicellular organisms such as animals. Asexual reproduction has advantages and disadvantages.
1- Quick expansion
This form of reproduction produces large numbers of offspring by simply placing a particular organism in a suitable habitat.
2- No mobility required
With asexual reproduction, organisms can be reproduced in a single area, without the need for transfer.
3- The couple is not needed
Asexual reproduction does not need the pair to reproduce. This feature is favorable when new areas are colonized since only one parent is needed.
4- It is favorable for the environment
This form of reproduction has no negative impact on the environment. On the other hand, asexual reproduction would cause some organisms not to survive in aggressive environments due to their susceptibility, sensitive stages during the process and their fragile organs.
5- It is practical in case of emergency
In difficult situations, asexual plants and animals are still able to stay alive and continue producing offspring without other reproductive sources. Basically, there are no major drawbacks regarding adverse environmental situations when it comes to asexual reproduction.
6- No investment needed
Organisms that reproduce asexually do not have to carry the offspring over a long period, unlike those reproduced through sexual reproduction, which, on the other hand, are generally limited to a single offspring.
As can be seen, there is no wear of energy or time to produce offspring. In addition, certain asexual plants and animals can produce countless clones without having to consider any investment. In short, reproduction process without complexity and requiring less energy.
7- Impedes diversity
As the characteristics and traits of a single parent are transmitted to their offspring, asexual reproduction hinders the genetic diversity of all their generations. This makes the procreated population exactly identical.
With sexual reproduction, the great advantage is the possibility of mixing groups of genes to guarantee a diverse ecosystem.
8- Possesses some inheritance problems
Most of the time, a single asexual progenitor is required to copy chromosomes and genes, which means that genetic defects or mutations that occur in asexual reproduction will continue to exist in offspring, with no exception.
This disadvantage may even lead to more unfavorable mutations, which result in organisms being produced asexually susceptible to disease, which also means that a large number of offspring would be destroyed.
9- The organisms tend to extinction
The identical traits and characteristics imply the same shortcomings and weaknesses. Therefore, an evolved predatory organism that attacks them, can kill an entire population not prepared to fight for its existence.
10- Can not control quantity
This form of reproduction can not control population growth. Each organism is able to reproduce itself, which means that its own population will double in each reproductive cycle. However, the process stops automatically when the number is excessive.
11- Agencies fail to adapt to changes in the environment
The organisms transmit characteristics to their descendants. But in the absence of variations, the adaptive capacity and survival of the changes in the environment are not developed.
12- Adverse environmental conditions
The process of asexual reproduction can occur in unfavorable conditions, such as extreme temperatures or other variations, which means that whole communities can be extinguished.