The process of globalization is, every day, more advanced, intensifying and spreading throughout the world. This phenomenon represents the worldwide integration of the different localities through the advances promoted in the field of communications and transport, providing a global relationship in economic, cultural, political, and therefore social levels.
There are, therefore, many of those who admire and consider important the phenomenon of globalization of societies, while there are those critics who consider it harmful. There is talk, therefore, of the advantages and demerits of Globalization, although the definition of what each of these “sides” would depend on who promotes their analysis.
In an effort to synthesize the various conclusions already made, we will highlight the main advantages and demerits of globalization, respectively. It is worth clarifying, however, that this analysis is not a general consensus, and there may be disagreements on any of the elements presented.
Among the demerits of Globalization, we must remember that many of them are credited not only to this process itself, but also and especially to the capitalist system, to which globalization is inextricably linked. In fact, for the world, it is only the globalization of the capitalist system and the diffusion of dominant values ??for the whole of global society, a concept that underlies much of the criticism promoted.
The first major demerit of the process of globalization, in the view of its critics, is the unequal way in which it expands, often benefiting economically more developed localities and arriving “backward” or “incomplete” in other regions, making them dependent economically.
Another demerit, also related to inequality, lies in the rhythm and direction of information flows. Some regions, especially those from developed countries, are able to expand their values ??and information more easily, which is not the case with more peripheral regions. For example, French, American or English cultures are easily recognized all over the world; other cultures are already marginalized or even ostracized, because their places of origin can not transmit them through the means of expanding globalization.
It stimulates unfair and fierce tax competition the race between different legal systems for having lower taxes in the region, which limits the possibility of progressive taxation. Companies threaten to leave if taxes are too high. ”
In the economic field, again the question of inequality emerges as the crux of the criticisms directed at globalization. The expansion of multinational companies – despite being able to reduce prices – is a serious blow to free competition, since few institutions now control much of the world market. In addition, the relocation of factories allows the acquisition of cheaper raw materials and the use of more labor, reducing wages and contributing to the progressive deregulation of labor laws.
Globalization also has drawbacks in the financial field, especially in how it can quickly spread speculative economic crises. The US housing crisis of 2008, for example, was quickly felt in Europe and, by extension, in several other parts of the world, leading to a complete collapse of speculation systems across the globe, increasing unemployment and public debt rates .
The loss of national identity occurs when people begin to take idioms, ways of thinking and general level; the culture of other nations at the expense of their own, to prevent this from happening, national policies on the local culture must be encouraged and taught to value it
Foreign influences are very common in globalization, they occur because there is a clear freedom to put companies from other countries locally or nationally, in addition to migration and interests that foreign governments have in a certain country. So that this does not happen, a strong and secure State of its economic system must be cultivated, taking advantage of the benefits but not subjecting itself to influences.
The loss of employment in globalization is a very relative phenomenon, since globalization can generate them as to make millions lose, when they begin to lose jobs because of globalization is due to factors such as the low competitiveness that the country has against its panorama international, a low level of preparation in the workers and little incentive for the use of technology and innovation.
Lastly, the environmental issue is also cited as a demerit of Globalization, as the increasingly intensified consumerist rhythm in the world has contributed to a greater exploitation of natural resources, as well as a progressive acceleration of the process of air pollution, waters and productive means, such as soil. Global warming or the devastation of forests are constant arguments for this factor.