We will explain what Postmodernism is, its importance, why it implies a change of era, and what are its main characteristics.
What is postmodernism?
The Postmodernism is an artistic, cultural, literary and philosophical movement that emerged in the second half of the twentieth century, more specifically from the fall of the Berlin Wall.
Criticisms of modernity
According to Lyotard, there are 4 stories that characterized modernity and that have died. These are:
- Stories about Christ.
- Marxist story .
- Story of the Enlightenment (the story of the lights).
- Capitalist story.
These stories have in common the promise of a better (future) tomorrow , where everything is perfect and wonderful. According to this author, he maintains that the 4 stories show an inevitable teleology: the end of the stories .
Modernism was based on the dual notion as a world: East-West; man-woman; rich-poor, white-black, etc. But for postmodernism, this idea cancels many others.
The Postmodernism is necessary to take into account all current and try to find a middle ground . It will also try to look for the interests of ” all people “; those that during modernity had been excluded or made invisible.
Questioning of texts
During postmodernity one begins to think that the authors of texts are not neutral. Rather they try to express a point of view but they do so as ” something absolute ” when certainly the reality is never absolute and depends on different views and different approaches.
Thus, postmodernism begins to understand that the texts reflect prejudices and personal positions of the authors and not that they are absolute or neutral questions about past events, a conception associated with modernity.
The excess of information comes from the birth or expansion of the different means of mass communication . Thus, during this stage television was consolidated and mass media as a means of communication par excellence since the birth of this period. Later digital media will arrive to overload information collaborating, in this way, with the increase in the data that is transmitted.
On the other hand, reality is blurred , since, now information, news, social, economic, political, cultural and social issues, come through a means of mass communication. This colors the information with subjectivity.
This intervention of the media, distance the sender from the receiver, making reality known only through the media and not directly.
From this stage it is considered that it is language that shapes the personality of the subjects. On the other hand it is argued that there is no thought without language, therefore, language creates realities.
The truth as a perspective
There is no absolute and immovable truth, as it was considered in modernity, but rather it is spoken of multiple truths . For this reason, it is not possible to access ” reality as such “. Rather, an individual reality can be accessed taking into account the subjective characteristics of each person.
Messages and contents
The messages take a turn, the image becomes stronger and the writing or the word loses its strength (in relation to the image). The message that is heard in society is “to worship the body”, above all things. In addition, the past or future loses importance and there is a tendency to think only in the present . The search is individual and internal.
Finally, reason and science lose strength , although technology is exalted.
There is a greater distance between subject and subject from the physical point of view, since technology allows dialogue thousands of kilometers from each other. This produces isolation and a lack of face to face communication compared to the increase in communication mediated by technology.
Blurring the limits of the private and the public
With the mass media and its openness worldwide, there is also a change in the conception of the private and the public. Appear like this, programs or intimate issues that open their doors to the public, allowing everyone to observe how, when, with whom and in what way private matters are carried out such as: discussions, intimate moments, secrets, personal confessions, traumas, etc. Private life has more the tinge of a show .
Drive to consumption
During postmodernity a change in the economy arises. It goes from an economy of production to a consumer economy . In addition, there is a compulsive consumerism . Products, spaces, idols, ideas, bodies, etc. are consumed
Revaluation of nature and the environment
To counteract environmental disasters, during the postmodern period we began to look at and observe the harmful consequences of toxic waste, malformations, mortality and pollution that human beings have left during modernity with the improper use of industry and heavy metals. Therefore, there is a revaluation of the planet Earth as a place and, therefore, a certain awareness for its care.