The ruminants are those mammals that feed on plants, lack of incisor teeth in the upper jaw and the stomach are composed of four cavities (that is also called the polygastrics ). For ex. bull , cow , goat .
The name of ruminants is given because their feeding process consists of swallowing the grass as quickly as possible, and then shelter from their predators to start ruminating the grass quietly.
Examples of ruminant animals
|Zebu||Kaffir buffalo||Common Stag|
|Nilgai||Four-horned antelope||Common fallow|
|Mountain Anoa||Bongo drum||Irish elk|
|Wildebeest||Central American red brocket||Sambar|
|Swamp deer||Water buffalo||Grant’s Gazelle|
|Roe deer||Yak||Northern giraffe|
|Andean deer||American bison||Corzuela|
|Urial||Deer of the Pampas||Elk|
|Ibex of the Alps||Axis deer||Impala|
The act of ruminating is about a regurgitation of the food in order to remasticate it. The process begins with the first intake of the grass where cut but not well shredded to the belly: peristaltic contractions that occur there, returns to the mouth to be chewed and insalivado forming the food bolus.
Then it returns to the set where the gastric juices act, following through the intestine where the digestion takes place, and then the incorporation into the general circulation.
Ruminants belong to a special category of herbivorous mammals that includes some well-known animals, and their rumination process allows them to take advantage of the structural carbohydrates present in plants, such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. This provides them with an additional source of energy.
The “Four Stomachs”
The process of rumination is possible because the stomach is divided into four cavities. In this way, it can be said that ruminants have:
- Rumen: Rough and ovoid organ, where the fatty acids of short chains are assimilated.
- Reticulum: Pyramid shaped, the place where the food particles are moved to the rumen.
- Omaso: a Small chamber that separates the solid material, intervenes in the extraction of liquids contained in the intake and allows the recycling of minerals.
- Abomasum: Long sac that is in the floor of the abdomen, secreting gastric juices and absorbing microorganisms.
The polygastric structure of these animals was given precisely by exposure to hunters (faster or stronger than them) that they had many times, as the feeding process was long and slow because the grass does not provide great nutrients.
The process of rumination served to enable these animals to go out to the large and open meadows where they were exposed to hunters and eat as quickly as they could in large quantities, then hide among trees and shrubs, where they could begin their digestion process.
To complement this process is that the stomach was divided, improving food from the microorganisms found in each of the cavities.