In this post will look at the differences between the tropics and the temperate zone or tepid climates
Temperate zone location
The temperate zone of the planet is located between the tropics , at a latitude of 26 ° in each hemisphere and the polar circles at a latitude of 66 °. It extends from the Tropic of Cancer to the Arctic Circle in the Northern Hemisphere.It extends from the Tropic of Capricorn to the Antarctic polar circle in the Southern Hemisphere. This area is mostly in extensions covered by the oceans, unlike its Nordic counterpart that has a greater proportion of continental and insular lands.
Tropical zone location
The tropical climate is a type of usual climate of the intertropical zone , in a band that surrounds the equator from 23º north latitude to 23º south latitude. The widely recognized classification of Wladimir Köppen defines as climate arid in which twelve months have temperatures higher than 18/2 ° C .
Temperate of the tropical zone
Tropical climates, in addition to having an average monthly temperature of approximately 24 ° C, are characterized by no frost . Therefore, the terms summer or winter have no meaning in these areas, so it is often said that they do not have winter. The average annual temperature difference (also called annual mean thermal oscillation ) is small, and some days the daily thermal oscillation itself may exceed the annual. These characteristics make it often said that “night is the winter of the tropics”. The oscillation is even lower the closer we get to equatorial regions. In arid tropical zones these rules vary, reason why these usually are grouped like desert.
Temperate of the temperate zone
The temperate climate has a temperature that varies regularly throughout the year, with an average higher than 10 ° C, in the warmer months, and between -3 and 18 ° C, in the cold months. They have four well-defined seasons: a relatively hot summer , an autumn with gradually lower temperatures as the days go by, a cold winter , and a spring , with gradually higher temperatures as the days go by. Humidity depends on the location and geographical conditions of a given region. There is a temperate climate in the temperate zone and in countries like Canada, Argentina, Chile and the southeast of the US. UU
In regions of the oceans located in areas of temperate climates, they are said to have temperate waters .
The third letter indicates the level, of summer temperatures, – a indicates that the average of the warmest month is higher than 22 ° C; b indicates that the average of the warmest month is below 22 ° C, with at least 4 months with means above 10 ° C; c indicates that 3 or less months have average temperatures above 10 ° C.
Temperate zone climate
It has the four seasons very well defined: autumn, summer, winter and spring.
The rain during the winter is quite dominant .
It has great variations in rainfall and winds due to the different temperatures that occur between the tropics and the polar ice caps .
The differences between summer and winter are due to the inclination with which the sun’s rays fall on the Earth.
They have the presence of sub-climates
Types of temperate climate
Humid subtropical temperate: they are located between 23.5 ° and 35 ° north or south latitude. It has summers long and hot and winters short and mild . The rainfall annually are concentrated in the warmest part of the year.
Temperate oceanic or marine : it is located in the middle latitudes of the planet, between 45 ° and 60 ° north and south latitude. Their temperatures depend on latitude but they are usually cool and soft. They are located in the zones of influence of subpolar cyclones , their temperatures are moderate and their precipitations are distributed well during the winter.
Mediterranean temperate : summers are presented long and hot and winters short and mild . They have a peak of precipitation in the winter season. It occurs mainly in coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea , in western coastal areas . Its summers are dry and sunny and may have subtropical anticyclones in summer and depressions during winter. The rainiest seasons are autumn and winter.
Continental temperate : its winters are cold and dry , while the summers are hot and rainy. It is located in the northern hemisphere and is characterized by having taiga , prairie and steppe vegetation .
Tropical climate zone climate
The tropical climate is that of the areas of the planet located between the tropics . It is characterized by having high temperatures and by the little difference of these between the seasons of the year, that is to say, it does not have a real cold season in winter . As for the rains, there are two very different seasons: one of rainy and the other dry. The rainy season is generally in the summer and dries in the winter. The abrupt transition from the dry to the wet season and on the contrary is also one of the main characteristics of this type of climate.
Types of tropical climate
The types of tropical climate that exist are the following:
Tropical rainy climate : it is found in regions near Ecuador or in its vicinity, also known as equatorial climate and is hot and humid .
The tropical climate of monsoons : located in the western coastal regions of Africa , the northeast coast of South America and the western coasts of India and Burma,
Humid -dry tropical climate : with alternating dry and wet seasons , located in high subtropical pressures and low equatorial pressures. Its vegetation is the savannah .
Climate semiarid and arid tropical : found at latitudes of 20-30 ° N and S of Ecuador , and at high pressures subtropical . Their temperatures are similar, but they are higher in the arid climate, with great thermal amplitudes, besides not being influenced by the maritime air masses, being characterized by low rainfall.
The tropical climate of altitude : found in areas of higher altitudes or mountain , its rains occur with greater intensity in the summer.
Precipitation of the tropical zones
High temperatures throughout the year cause intense warming of the earth’s surface. This warming produces the formation of large cumulus clouds and cumulonimbus clouds every day, which occurs more frequently in the afternoon. These clouds are responsible for generating storm activity practically every day. For this reason rainforests receive approximately 103 inches of rain per year, with rain falling year-round and humidity ranges between 77 and 88 percent every day.
In addition, we can find monsoons in the tropical climate . The monsoon is a seasonal wind that produces a lot of torrential rains and floods . There are two types of monsoons: summer and winter , because the wind changes direction in each of them.
Precipitation of the temperate zones
In the temperate climate it usually rains throughout the year and the rains are distributed throughout all the months of the year. Basically, it rains at least once a month, however, as you move south , it is common to observe that rains are more frequent during the winter .
Vegetation of the temperate zone
The temperate forest is very variable, in some places the deciduous trees predominate while in others the conifers are more common. There are also mixed forests with coniferous trees, deciduous broadleaf, and evergreen broadleaf. Temperate forests occupy areas with abundant and uniformly distributed rainfall and moderate temperatures with a marked seasonal pattern. The flora and fauna of the temperate forests are very diversified, although many animals migrate or hibernate during the cold winter.
These forests are mainly composed of deciduous trees, which discard their leaves each autumn and develop a new complement every spring; therefore, seasonal changes in the appearance of these forests are very marked. As you go south, more and more species of evergreen broadleaf trees appear. The forests have several layers, with 1 or 2 layers of trees, a shrub layer, and a herbaceous layer. There is usually an explosion of growth and flowering of the herbaceous species during the spring. Conifers, particularly pines, appear in many special edaphic situations; for example, where fires are frequent or the soils are poor. Some trees characteristically produce large quantities of seeds in some years and few in others. Lianas are more common than in other forests in the temperate zone, perhaps because they are able to compete for light when trees have lost their leaves; however, epiphytes are absent due, perhaps, to being very exposed to low winter temperatures
Vegetation of the tropical zones
The predominant ecosystems in most tropical areas are tropical forests , savannas and deserts.More than half of the world forest can be found in the tropical zone.
tropical rainforest can be found in large areas of lowlands of the Amazon Basin (South America), in the East Indies and the Congo Basin (West Africa). The climate is hot and humid throughout the year. The precipitation exceeds 7 cm per month and temperatures vary little. No other terrestrial biome has such a uniform climate.The rainforests produce many precious and beautiful woods, such as ebony, mahogany, jacaranda and others. Hundreds of other products useful to man come from rainforest species – rubber, cocoa and curare (a resinous extract used as a muscle relaxant or to poison arrows
Seasonal tropical forests.
In India and Southeast Asia there is an annual inversion of the winds called monsoon . It is due to the heating and periodic cooling of the lands of Tibet. The summer monsoon takes the tropical pluvial air to India. In the winter, the wind reverses and carries warm air to the mountains of Central Asia where the rain forests are located. That hot air dries the jungles, and for spring, the environment is hot and dry. Animals, like the python and the snakes, hide and inactivate until the winds change direction and the rains return. As many trees lose their leaves in the dry season, the biome can be described as seasonal rain forest (monsoon forest
The savannahs are tropical meadows with a small number of scattered trees or shrubs. They develop in regions of high temperature, which have a marked difference between the dry and wet seasons. In the wet season, the growth is rapid, but they dry up and fall in quality during the dry season. The tropical savannas cover extensive areas in South America, Africa, India, Southeast Asia, and Northern Australia.
The tropical zone also has deserts cactus and thorny plants are the major natural vegetation.
Clothing for temperate climate
The clothing that is used in the temperate climate depends a lot on the season in which it is, so that hot clothes can be used to avoid the cold, or fresh clothes if the temperatures have risen and the heat has begun to show in the places where you live.
Clothing for tropical climate
The clothing depend on the temperature, most regions cotton is the best to wear or loose thin clothing . If it’s a rainy season you need to be attired for the condition examples long boots. People of the desert wear clothing to protect them selves for sand storms , loose clothing for the heat and clothing for the cold nights.
Animals of the tropical zones
The animals that live in places with this incredible climate usually have very bright colors, very striking. An example of this is birds , like the parrot. Many of them live in the trees, but there are others that we can find in the marshes or rivers, such as the anaconda or reticular python . But not only birds and reptiles live here, but also mammals, such as monkeys , sloths or some felines, such as tigers , leopards or jaguars .
If we talk about fish and amphibians, here we will find the carnivorous piranhas , the giant sea toad , dolphins or the green red-eyed frog that attracts so much attention.
Animals of temperate zones
The temperate forest animals are not very visible: some because of their nocturnal habits, others because they live among the herbs. There is a great variety of worms, insects, lizards and shingles that walk on the ground, leaf litter and wood. Due to their colors and habits, a large number of birds go unnoticed. The latter hunt from insects to deer, according to their size. Likewise, the less extreme winters make these forests are chosen by numerous migratory species that come from October to March from Canada and the United States, as is the case of the monarch butterfly.
Due to its wealth and location, many human settlements have settled in areas of temperate forest, so these have been exploited since pre-Hispanic times. Several of their animals have been displaced, some are almost on the verge of disappearance, such as the bear, dormice, wild boar, deer, ducks, crows, wildcats, among others.
A high proportion of birds and many bats migrate south during the winter, while the remaining bats and some other mammals hibernate during this period of low food and adverse weather conditions. Food storage is possible due to the ease of storage due to the low temperature, and this adaptation is important for some jackdaws and squirrels that specialize in trees that produce a lot only in a few years such as oaks and beech trees. The cicadas, with surprising emergency synchronized cycles that allow them to saturate populations
Countries with a temperate climate
The temperate climate can be found in South Asia , in the United States , some parts of Australia and on the east coast of South America , Western Australia, and Europe, in countries such as France, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria and in the European zone of Turkey .
Countries with a tropical climate
Some examples of countries that have a type of tropical climate in America are Brazil, Panama, Costa Rica, Colombia, Venezuela, Mexico, Nicaragua. Some countries with the tropical climate in Asia are: Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Philippines, Vietnam.