The composition of two different substances in it is called dissolution , whether it is two elements of the same state of aggregation or two different. It is necessary that the composition results in a homogeneous mixture, that is to say that the process is produced by which a substance that appears in smaller quantity (called solute ) is incorporated to another that appears in greater quantity (called solvent ) habitually changing some of its characteristics physical The proportion of solute in the solvent is what is called concentration , and usually the same solution can appear in various concentrations.
The different states of aggregation of matter allow the formation of dissolutions in any of the senses . Thus, solutions can be recognized in many of the senses (gaseous to liquid or vice versa, between gases or between liquids). The least frequent, without a doubt, is that of a dissolution between solid elements, which due to its own characteristics is more complicated to experience a dissolution as explained. However, they do not disappear and it is common for them to appear between metals.
It is usual that the presence of solute molecules inside a solvent alters the properties of the same solvent . For example, the melting and boiling point are modified, increasing their density and chemical behavior, as well as their color. There is a mathematical relationship between the quotient of the number of molecules of the solute and those of the solvent and the variation in the melting and boiling points, discovered by the French chemist Roult.
Obviously, people are permanently in contact with solutions, without doubt putting first in this list the air , which is a dissolution of elements of the gaseous state: its majority composition is given by nitrogen (78%) and the rest is occupied by a 21% oxygen and 1% other components, although these proportions may vary slightly. However, the air belongs to an atypical category of dissolutions because the combination of substances does not generate a joint reaction but simply the gases are there, producing the substance without which human life and of animals with breath becomes impossible.
List of examples of solutions
The following list will include forty examples of dissolution , highlighting the state of aggregation that the combination performs, a solute in a respective solvent.
- Air (gas in gas): A composition of gases, where nitrogen acts as the most abundant.
- Pumice stone (gas in solid): The gas composed in the solid (which is actually a liquid that went through a solidification process) gives rise to the stone, with the properties that are typical.
- Butter (liquid in solid).
- Smoke (solid in gas): The air is vitiated by the appearance of smoke released from the fire, in what is a solution where the air acts as a solvent.
- Other alloys between metals (solid in solid)
- Aerosols (liquid in gas)
- Face cream (liquid in liquid)
- Atmospheric dust of the air (solid in gas): The presence of solids (decomposed almost to an indivisible unit but solid at the end) in the gas, is an example of dissolution in that sense.
- Steel (solid to solid): Alloy between iron and carbon, with a much higher proportion of the former.
- Carbonated beverages (gas in liquid): Soft drinks have, almost by their own definition, a dissolution of gases within a liquid.
- Amalgam (liquid in solid)
- Oil (liquid in liquid): The combination of the elements that compose it (the majority is carbon) gives rise to a dissolution between liquids.
- Butane in air (gas in gas): Butane is an element that allows the concentration of gas in tubes, ready to be used as fuel.
- Oxygen in ocean water (gas in liquid)
- Drinks with an alcohol content (liquid in liquid)
- Coffee with milk (liquid in liquid): A liquid of higher content receives a bit of another, which represents a transformation of its color and flavor.
- Smog (gases in gas): The introduction of gases that are not proper to the atmosphere induces a transformation of the air, which has negative effects on the societies that breathe it: the more concentrated, the more harmful it will be.
- Shaving foam (gas in liquid): The compressed gas in the can is mixed with the liquids that have the properties of the foam, to find the thick mixture whose function is to prepare the skin for shaving.
- Salt in water (solid in liquid)
- Blood (liquid in liquid): The majority element is the plasma (liquid), and within it appear other elements within which red blood cells stand out.
- Ammonia in water (liquid in liquid): This solution (which can also be made from a gas to a liquid) is functional to many cleaning inputs.
- Air with traces of moisture (liquid in gas)
- Metal with bubbles (gas in solid)
- Dust juices (solid in liquid): The powder is immersed in the water and generates a reaction that immediately reveals the notions of solute and solvent.
- Deodorant (solid in gas)
- Hydrogen in palladium (gas in solid)
- Viruses that are transported by air (solid in gas): In the same way as atmospheric dust, these are very small units of a solid that are transported by a gas.
- Mercury in silver (liquid in solid)
- Fog (liquid in gas): It is a suspension of tiny drops of water in the air, after coming into contact with a cold stream of air.
- Naphthalene in the air (solid in gas)
- Tea (solid in liquid): A solid in very small dimensions (the granite of the envelope) dissolve on the water.
- Aqua regia (liquid in liquid): Acid composition that dissolves different metals between which the gold appears.
- Bronze (solid to solid): Alloy between copper and tin.
- Lemonade (liquid in liquid): Although many times the mixture is between a solid and a liquid, it is actually a liquid present in that solid, such as lemon juice.
- Hydrogen peroxide (gas in liquid)
- Brass (solid to solid): This is the alloy between the solid copper and zinc.
- Hydrogen in platinum (solid in gaseous)
- Cooling by ice (solid in liquid): Ice is introduced into the liquid and cooled, while dissolving. If it is introduced in water it is the particular case in which it is the same substance.
- Physiological solution (liquid in liquid): Water acts as a solvent and many liquid substances do it as a solute.
- Liquefied (solids in liquids): By a grinding process, is induced by a combination of solid to liquid. However, the combination itself generates a certain solvent reaction that is not enough to give it the liking taste.