They are called oxyacid, oxoacid ternary compounds formed by oxygen, hydrogen and an element corresponding to non-metals . Therefore, the formation of an oxoacid is also due to the incorporation of water to an acidic oxide, which in itself is the combination between a non-metal and oxygen. In the same way as in water, the chemical formula of the oxacid will always have first the proportions of hydrogen, then those of the non-metal and finally those of oxygen.
Unlike other compounds, in the case of oxacids the oxidation number is always the same, +1 . It can be said that oxoacids are generally substances that must be handled with care to the extent that they report a fairly large risk in handling, but no less frequent are the oxoacids that are present in daily life, as is the case with vinegar. It is very common, on the other hand, to find oxoacids to a large extent in fertilizers or in drugs.
As acids, compounds of this type tend to have a flavor similar to that of lemon, as well as having particular characteristics in their color: they change from blue from litmus paper to red, and produce red coloration with methyl orange. Oxoacids also react with the bases to form salts and water , in the process known as neutralization.
Probably the most common of the oxoacids that exist in the earth is the sulfuric acid (H 2 S0 4 ), precisely the chemical compound that is most produced in the world , for the use of fertilizers or as a means of reaction in organic chemical processes and petrochemicals, for the treatment of crude oil flows. It is also common to find this substance in the steel and wood industry: its enormous amount of uses explains the extension it has in human development.
List of examples of oxyacids or oxoacids
Oxoacids have different alternatives for their designation, among which stand out the traditional, stock and functional nomenclature. The following list will include 40 examples of oxoacids, with their traditional nomenclature and chemical formulation. In some of them a brief description with its uses will be detailed:
- Bromic acid (HBrO 2 ): Bromine compound, unstable and with only appearance as intermediate compound.
- Hypobromous acid (HBrO): Combination of a hypobromous anhybrid molecule and a water molecule. It is only known in diluted aqueous solution.
- Orthophosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ): Non-combustible acid, but harmful in contact with human skin.
- Orthosilicic acid (H 4 SiO 4 ): Weak acid, which is used as a drying or support agent
- Hypochlorous acid (HClO): With functionalities that allow activating a defense system, which repairs the tissues of the skin with greater speed.
- Chromic acid (H 2 CrO 4 ): Highly oxidizing and corrosive solid, considered a strong acid, being an unstable compound at high temperatures.
- Orthoarsenic acid (H 3 AsO 4 )
- Permanganic acid (HMnO 4 ): Very strong acid, also known only in the aqueous solution.
- Bromic acid (HBrO 3 ): Oxoacid of bromine, whose salts are powerful oxidizing agents.
- Periodic acid (HIO 4 ): Used to cause an oxidative breakdown a neighborhood diol in two aldehydes or ketones in fragments.
- Dicromic acid (H 2 Cr 2 O 7 ): Present in the mixtures of chromic acid used for cleaning the glass, together with the mixture of chromic and sulfuric acid.
- Metaphosphoric acid (HPO 3 ): Colorless and odorless solid at room temperature. Very corrosive
- Yodic acid (HIO 3 ): Reagent to detect the presence of morphine in a product, also used in the salts of iodic acid.
- Sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 3 ): Potent reducing agent for whitening stains on materials damaged by chlorine. It is the cause of acid rain.
- Sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ): The chemical compound most used in the world, common in fertilizers and metal processing.
- Carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ): Acid used in gaseous form for the manufacture of carbonated beverages and in the chemical industry. In many occasions it turns into carbon dioxide.
- Nitric acid (HNO 3 ): Liquid commonly used as a laboratory reagent, with strong dangers of causing burns in humans.
- Chloric acid (HClO 3 ): Aqueous solution, cold stable until a concentration of approximately 30%. Its decomposition produces a large number of products.
- Nitrous acid (HNO 2 ): In gaseous state it is remarkably dissociated, and if it is tried to concentrate it decomposes. It is involved in the ozone of the troposphere.
- Arsenious acid (H 3 AsO 3 ): Like any arsenic-containing compound, it is highly toxic and carcinogenic. It is used in herbicides and pesticides.
- Metaboric acid (HBO 2 )
- Hyposulfuric acid (H 2 SO 2 )
- Orthosulfuric acid (H 4 SO 5 )
- Hyponitrous acid (HNO)
- Dicromic acid (H 2 Cr 2 O 7 )
- Hypophosphorous acid (H 3 PO 2 )
- Pyrosulfuric acid (H 2 S 2 O 7 )
- Triphosphoric acid (H 5 P 3 O 10 )
- Orthoperoxy acid (H 5 IO 6 )
- Metaphosphorous acid (HPO 2 )
- Perchloric acid (HClO 4 )
- Pyrophosphorous acid (H 4 P 2 O 5 )
- Orthocarbonic acid (H 4 CO 4 )
- Metasilicic acid (H 2 SiO 3 )
- Orthophosphorous acid (H 3 PO 3 )
- Chlorous acid (HClO 2 )
- Manganic acid (H 2 MnO 4 )
- Pyroestibose acid (H 4 Sb 2 O 5 )
- Hypoyodosic acid (HIO)
- Pyrophosphoric acid (H 4 P 2 O 7 )