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Examples of ionic bonds

ionic bonding

To form the molecules of the chemical compounds , the atoms of the different substances or elements must be combined in a stable way , and this can occur in various ways by virtue of the structural characteristics that every atom has, which, as we know, consists of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons.

The electrons have a negative charge and remain close to the nucleus because the electromagnetic force attracts them. The closer an electron is to the nucleus, the greater the energy needed to make it free.

But not all elements are the same: some have a tendency to lose the outermost electrons of the cloud (elements with low ionization energy), while others tend to capture them (elements with high electronic affinity). This happens because according to the Lewis octet rule , stability is associated with the presence of 8 electrons in the outermost orbital layer, at least in most cases.

Ionic bonds

Then, as there can be loss or gain of electrons , ions of opposite charge can form, and the electrostatic attraction between the ions of opposite charge causes these to come together and form simple chemical compounds, in which one of the elements gave up electrons and the other received them. For this to happen and to form an ionic bond, it is necessary that there is a difference or delta of electronegativity between the elements involved of at least 1.7.

The ionic bond  usually occurs between a metallic compound and a non-metallic one: the metal atom yields one or more electrons and consequently forms positively charged ions (cations), and the non-metal gains them and becomes the charged particle negatively (anion). The alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals are the elements that tend to form cations, and the halogen elements and oxygen are what usually constitute the anions.

In general, compounds that are formed by ionic bonds are solids at room temperature and high melting point, soluble in water . In solution they are very good conductors of electricity , since they are strong electrolytes. The reticular energy of an ionic solid is what marks the attractive force between the ions of that solid.

20 Examples of ionic bonds

  • Magnesium oxide (MgO)
  • Copper sulfate (CuSO4)
  • Potassium iodide (KI)
  • Zinc hydroxide (Zn (OH) 2)
  • Sodium chloride (NaCl)
  • Silver nitrate (AgNO3)
  • Lithium fluoride (LiF)
  • Magnesium chloride (MgCl2)
  • Potassium hydroxide (KOH)
  • Calcium nitrate (Ca (NO3) 2)
  • Calcium phosphate (Ca3 (PO4) 2)
  • Potassium dichromate(K2Cr2O7)
  • Disodium phosphate (Na2HPO4)
  • Iron sulfide (Fe2S3)
  • Potassium bromide (KBr)
  • Calcium carbonate (CaCO3)
  • Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO)
  • Potassium sulfate (K2SO4)
  • Manganese Chloride (MnCl2)



Sulfur Oxides

Examples of Non-metallic oxides

family types

14 types of families (and their characteristics)