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Examples of Ions

An ion is an atom or group of atoms that carries an electric charge , either positive or negative. The number of protons in the nucleus, which are positively charged, will remain the same during chemical reactions. Instead, you can lose or gain electrons , which are negatively charged particles.

The atom or group of atoms is transformed into an ion by that loss or gainof electrons, and according to it, it will take a positive or negative charge, respectively. It is explained:

  • Losing electron: losing negative charge = gaining positive charge.
  • Winning electron: gain negative charge.

Types of ions

Ions can be grouped according to two main criteria:

  • By the number of atoms that carry
  • By the sign of its electric charge

The ions, according to the number of atoms that conform them, are classified in:

  • Monoatomic
  • Polyatomic

The monatomic ions are those atoms one chemical element that have lost or gained an electron, and have the ability to bind other in an ionic bond. Among them are the metallic, non-metallic and metalloid atoms; for example:

  • Na + , K + , Mg +2 , Ca +2 , Al +3
  • -3 , As -3 , S -2 , O -2 , Cl 

The polyatomic ions are those molecules or groups of atoms bearing an overall charge, either positive or negative, and which are able to bind other in an ionic bond. Among them are:

  • NH + , SO -2 , SO -2 , CO -2 , PO -3 , ClO  , ClO  , ClO  , ClO  , NO     

Ions, according to the sign of their electric charge , are classified as:

  • Cations
  • Anions

The cations are the ions of positive charge because they lack one or more electrons. Among them are:

  • NH + , H + , Na + , K + , Rb + , Mg +2 , Ca +2 , Sr +2 , Ba +2 , B +3 , Al +3 , Ga +3

The anions are negatively charged ions , because electrons have won. Among them are:

  •  , Cl  , Br  , I  , O -2 , S -2 , Se -2 , SO -2 , SO -2 , PO -3 , PO -3

Representation of ions

The ions are expressed by writing the symbol of the element or the formula of the chemical compound, and the positive or negative charge is added as a superscript. For example:

  • Ammonium ion: NH +
  • Ion sodium: Na +
  • Ion magnesium: Mg +2
  • Ion aluminum: Al +3
  • Ion chloride: Cl 
  • Ion sulfur: S -2
  • Ion phosphorus: P -3
  • Ion permanganate: MnO 
  • Ion sulfate: SO -2
  • Ion phosphate: PO -3

The ionic bond

Ions are able to bind to each other in a bond: a positively charged ion with a negatively charged ion , to form the molecule of a new substance. This is achieved thanks to the attraction for electrostatic forces between their charges. The ionic bond will imply how many ions are needed for the result to be neutral, that is, with the charges fully compensated for each other.

For example, in order to form a molecule of calcium phosphate Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , it is going to be required that three calcium ions (Ca + 2 ) come into contact with two phosphate ions (PO -3 ). This will allow a positive charge of +6 (that is, 3 x (+2) = +6) to be compensated with a negative charge of -6 (ie, 2 x (-3) = -6).

Ions in aqueous solutions

The ionic molecules , when in contact with water to form a mixture called aqueous solution , dissociate. This means that they dissolve and separate in the ions that compose them. This phenomenon causes that there are electrical charges , positive and negative, dispersed in the water , contributing to this the ability to conduct electrical currents: conductivity .

Examples of monatomic ions

  • Sodium (Na + )
  • Potassium (K + )
  • Rubidium (Rb + )
  • Magnesium (Mg +2 )
  • Calcium (Ca +2 )
  • Strontium (Sr +2 )
  • Barium (Ba +2 )
  • Boro (B +3 )
  • Aluminum (Al +3 )
  • Gallium (Ga +3 )
  • Carbon (C +4 )
  • Silicon (Yes +4 )
  • Germanium (Ge +4 )
  • Nitrogen (N -3 )
  • Phosphorus (P -3 )
  • Arsenic (As -3 )
  • Oxygen (O -2 )
  • Sulfur (S -2 )
  • Selenium (Se -2 )
  • Fluor (F  )
  • Chlorine (Cl  )
  • Bromo (Br  )
  • Iodine (I  )

Examples of polyatomic ions

  • Ammonium (NH + )
  • Cyanide (CN  )
  • Sulfate (SO -2 )
  • Sulfite (SO -2 )
  • Bisulfite (HSO  )
  • Bicarbonate (HCO  )
  • Carbonate (CO -2 )
  • Phosphate (PO -3 )
  • Phosphite (PO -3 )
  • Permanganate (MnO  )
  • Hypochlorite (ClO  )
  • Chlorite (ClO  )
  • Chlorate (ClO  )
  • Perchlorate (ClO  )
  • Hypoiodite (IO  )
  • Yodito (IO  )
  • Yodato (IO  )
  • Periodate (IO  )
  • Hypobromite (BrO  )
  • Bromine (BrO  )
  • Bromate (BrO  )
  • Perbromato (BrO  )

 

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