An inorganic acid (or mineral acid ) is an acid derived from one or more inorganic compounds, and all inorganic acids form hydrogen ions and conjugated base ions when dissolved in water. These acids have no carbon in their composition as opposed to the organic acids they do. The carbonic acid is a mineral acid but has a coal, the difference is not carbon itself but carbon bonds ( see : carboxylic acid ) is a function .and
Inorganic acids fall into two broad categories:
- Hydrogen acids without oxygen, formed by hydrogen and another compound or a polyatomic anion.
- Oxygen acids with oxygen. Hydrogen is attached to an oxygen atom that bonds with the rest of the O – H molecule .
Examples of Inorganic Acids
- Hydrohalic : They are binary acids formed by the combination of hydrogen with a nonmetal element. They are named using the generic word acid followed by the Latin name of the non-metallic chemical element with the water termination. Hydracids are considered as the hydrides of the elements of groups VI and VII.
- H 2 S hydrogen sulfide
- HI hydroiodic acid
- HCl hydrochloric acid
- HBr hydrobromic acid
React with metals giving Binary Salts: HCl + Mg ? MgCl + 1/2 H 2
- Oxacids :They are ternary acids that result from the combination of an acid oxide with water ; therefore, they are combinations of hydrogen, oxygen and a nonmetal. They can be considered for formulation purposes as the result of the addition of a water molecule to that of an anhydride; therefore, the valence with which nonmetal acts is positive. These compounds are named with the word acid , followed by the name of the anhydride, from which it is considered derived.
- H 3 PO 3 phosphorous acid
- H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid
Examples Inorganic Acids Applications
- Inorganic acids are used as intermediate chemicals and catalysts in chemical reactions. They are found in different industries, such as metalwork, wood, textiles, dyes, oil and photography . In metal work they are often used as cleaning agents before welding, veneering or painting. Sulfamic acid, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid are used in electroplating, and perchloric acid in metal plating .
- Hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, perchloric acid and sulfamic acid are used in many industries. Hydrochloric acid, or hydrogen chloride in aqueous solution, is used for industrial acidification, for mineral refining tin and tantalum, to convert the starch of corn syrup and to remove the oxide layer of the boilers and heat exchange It is also used as a tanning agent in the leather industry .
- The sulfuric acid is used in wax paper and in processes such as the purification of oil , refined vegetable oil, the carbonized tissue wool , extracting uranium from pitchblende and deoxidized of iron and steel . Sulfuric acid and perchloric acid are used in the explosives industry.
- Sulfamic acid is a flame retardant in the wood and textile industries and a bleach and bactericide in the pulp and paper industry . It is also used for stabilization of chlorine in swimming pools.
- The nitric acid is used in the manufacture of ammonium nitrate fertilizer and explosive. It is also used in organic synthesis, metallurgy, mineral flotation, and for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel.