A scientific revolution is an epistemological term that has been used by Thomas Kuhn. Although the scientific revolutions are believed to have taken place at a certain time, the term scientific revolution implies an evolutionary leap in the human being. In this, science has a central or fundamental place.
This is known as a scientific paradigm shift and implies that scientific production stops acting the way it was done (until then) to turn around or change as a consequence of a significant scientific discovery.
Examples of scientific revolutions
- Copernican revolution . This revolution gave way from geocentric theory to heliocentric theory. In other words, it was no longer stated that the Earth was the center of the solar system and it came to be understood that it constituted a solar system but the center of it was the solar star.
- Darwinian revolution . Darwin’s ideas mention natural selection and the evolution of species and break the previous paradigm.
- Einsteinian revolution . With his theory of relativity, Einstein includes special relativity and general relativity.
- Indeterministic revolution . It is a philosophical revolution that refers to indeterminacy: overcoming the mechanistic conception of science. Within this revolution is the quantum revolution.
- From the theory of humors to the advances of the 16th and 17th centuries in medicine : Andrea Vesalio, Miguel Servet and William Harvey where the conception of medicine and physiology in relation to blood circulation changes.
- From the theories and mathematical concepts of Pythagora, Thales of Miletus, Euclid and Archimedes to Descartes, Pascal and Leibniz-Newton.
- Lavoiserian revolution or chemical revolution, by chemist Antoine Lavoisier
- Lyellian Revolution , by geologist Charles Lyell
- Maxwellian Revolution , by physicist James Clerk Maxwell
- Mendelian revolution or genetic revolution , by Gregor Mendel. Mendel began to study the genetic inheritance of plants. His studies led to the start of genetics, which is why he is considered the father of genetics.
- Wegenerian revolution . He carried out a revolution at the geographical level where he determined that all the continents had their beginnings in a single continent which he called “Pangea”
- Karl Marx – Capital (1867) . He establishes, in his treatise, a theorization of the capitalist system where the figures of the proletariat with its work force and the entrepreneurs with their companies are found; unequal struggle in which he determines that in a future society the communist movement would dominate the world and the only possible class would exist: the working class, that is, the proletariat.
- Sigmund Freud – The Interpretation of Dreams (1899) . It establishes a revolution since it highlights that the acts of human beings are not conscious, but that its foundation lies in an unconscious that is not possible to access except for lapses, failed acts, jokes or dreams.
- Galileo Galilei – Sidereal Messenger (1610) . He was the first to observe the stars with a telescope, which gave rise to modern astronomy and succumbed to the previous theory: geocentric.
- Jean-Jacques Rousseau – The Social Contract (1762) . This book is known as the prelude to the French Revolution.
- Johannes Kepler – New Astronomy (1609) . He conducted a study of the orbit and movement of the planets. Thanks to his contribution, three basic laws were established that would revolutionize Astronomy.
- Jean Piaget – The birth of intelligence in the child (1936) with this contribution, constructivist psychology begins. He proposes a detailed study on the stages of evolution of children from birth to adolescence where, according to him, the brain reaches the last of the stages described: the formal operation.
- Antoine Lavoisier – Elementary Treatise on Chemistry (1789) With this treatise, the author establishes the central concepts contained in the law of conservation of masses.
- Niccolò Machiavelli – The prince (1532) . In this treatise, Machiavelli talks about the art of governing. It was written within monarchies and is considered to be the birth of current political science.
- Noam Chomsky – Syntactic Structures (1957) creates a structure with the structuralist model for linguistics.