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Examples of Liquid, Solid and Gaseous Solutions

Characteristics of solutions

  • A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
  • Solute particles in a solution cannot be seen with the naked eye.
  • A solution does not allow light rays to scatter.
  • A solution is stable.
  • The solute of a solution cannot be separated by filtration (or mechanically).
  • It consists of a single phase.

 

Characteristics of the solute and the solvent

In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture made up of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent . The solution more or less takes on the characteristics of the solvent including its phase, and the solvent is commonly the largest fraction of the mixture. The concentration of a solute in a solution is a measure of the amount of solute that dissolves in the solvent, relative to the amount of solvent that is present as the salt.

 

Types and properties of solutions

Homogeneous means that the components of the mixture form a single phase. Heterogeneous means that the components of the mixture are of different phase. The properties of the mixture (such as concentration, temperature, and density) can be distributed evenly throughout the volume, but only in the absence of diffusion phenomena or after its completion. Usually, the substance present in the largest amount is considered the solvent. Solvents can be gases, liquids or solids. One or more components present in the solution other than the solvent are called solutes. The solution has the same physical state as the solvent.

Types of solutions according to their degree of concentration:

  • diluted solutions . The amount of solute is in a small proportion in relation to the volume.

  • concentrated solutions . The amount of solute in a given volume is considerable.

  • unsaturated solutions . The solute does not reach the maximum possible amount.

  • saturated solutions . The greatest amount of solute possible has been reached, generating an equilibrium between it and the solvent.

  • supersaturated solutions . It contains more solute than can exist at an equilibrium level.

Examples of solid and gaseous liquid solutions

Examples of gaseous solutions

If the solvent is a gas, only gases dissolve under a given set of conditions. An example of a gaseous solution is air (oxygen and other gases dissolved in nitrogen). Since interactions between molecules play almost no role, diluting gases form more trivial solutions. In some of the literature, they are not even classified as solutions, but are addressed as mixtures.

Examples of liquid solutions

If the solvent is a liquid, then almost all gases, liquids, and solids can be dissolved. Here are some examples:

  • Gas in liquid solutions
  • The oxygen in the water
  • Carbon dioxide in water is a less simple example, because solution is accompanied by a chemical reaction (ion formation). Also note that the visible bubbles in carbonated water are not the dissolved gas, just a fizz of carbon dioxide that has come out of solution; the dissolved gas itself is not visible as it dissolves on a molecular level.
  • Liquid in liquid solutions
  • The mixture of two or more substances of the same chemistry but different concentrations to form a constant. (Homogenization of solutions)
  • Alcoholic beverages are basically solutions of ethanol in water.
  • solid in liquid solutions
  • Sucrose (table sugar) in water
  • Sodium chloride (NaCl) (table salt) or any other salt in water, which forms an electrolyte: On dissolving, the salt dissociates into ions.

Liquid mixtures that are not homogeneous: colloids , suspensions , emulsions are not considered solutions.

Body fluids are examples of complex liquid solutions, which contain many solutes. Many of these are electrolytes, since they contain solute ions, such as potassium. In addition, they contain solute molecules such as sugar and urea. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are also essential components of blood chemistry, where significant changes in their concentrations can be a sign of serious illness or injury.

Examples of solid solutions

If the solvent is a solid, then gases, liquids, and solids can dissolve.

  • Gas in solid solutions
  • Hydrogen dissolves fairly well in metals, especially palladium; this is studied as a hydrogen storage medium.
  • liquid in solid solutions
  • Mercury in gold, forming an amalgam
  • water into solid salt or sugar, forming wet solids
  • Hexane in paraffin wax
  • Solids in solid solutions
  • Steel, basically a solution of carbon atoms in a crystalline matrix of iron atoms.
  • Alloys such as bronze and many others.
  • Polymers containing plasticizers

A list of examples of solutions

Examples of solutions:

  1. Atmospheric air (gas in gas)

  2. Salt dissolved in water (solid in liquid)

  3. Sugar dissolved in water (solid in liquid)

  4. Gold dissolved in mercury (solid in solid)

  5. Zinc and tin alloy (solid on solid)

  6. Naphthalene dissolved in air (solid in gas)

  7. Water vapor (liquid in gas)

  8. Lemonade (liquid in liquid)

  9. Moist air (liquid in gas)

  10. Duralumin (solid on solid)

  11. Coffee with milk (solid in liquid)

  12. Oil (liquid in liquid)

  13. Volcanic dust (solid in gas)

  14. Serpentine foam (liquid in gas)

  15. Palladium Silver Alloy (Solid on Solid)

  16. Hydrogen in palladium (gas in solid)

  17. Carbonated water (gas in liquid)

  18. Ethanol dissolved in water (liquid in liquid)

  19. Shaving foam (liquid in gas)

  20. Liquid aerosol (liquid in gas)

  21. Dissolved oxygen in water (gas in liquid)

  22. Sublimated iodine dissolved in hydrogen (solid in gas)

  23. Fog (liquid in gas)

  24. Tea (solid in liquid)

  25. Juice powder (solid in liquid)

  26. Gelatin (solid in liquid)

  27. Amalgams (solid with solid)

  28. Butane in air (gas in gas)

  29. Blood (liquid in liquid)

  30. Perfume (liquid in liquid)

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