Cyst and fibroid both of them are majorly encountered in the outpatient and inpatient gynaecological tasks. Cyst and fibroid both the conditions are mostly benign. We can say that some cysts can be malignant but fibroids are always benign except in very few exceptional cases of malignant transformations. Both of these conditions have same presentations. They may appear as a pelvic mass, dyspareunia, menstrual irregularities, and incidentally during schedule investigations. A good history, examination and ultrasound scanning are required to differentiate between these two.
It is a collection of fluid walled off which is the reason of tissue reactions. Cyst has two types. The first one is true cyst and the other is pseudo-cyst. The main differentiating feature between the two types is the presence of a well formed wall in a cyst and lack of same in a pseudo-cyst. A pseudo-cyst is a collection of fluid walled off by natural relating tissue. This can occur on any part of the body. Ovarian cyst, pseudo-pancreatic cyst, vaginal wall cyst, and fallopian tube cyst are some common cysts. The fluid in cysts may not contain a great amount if protein. Due to the excessive accumulation of fluid cyst is formed. The ovary has a lot of follicles which absorb fluid and become graafian follicles. Graafian follicle has a fluid filled cavity. When ovulation is not occurred, the follicle carries on absorbing fluid, and the ovarian cyst is formed. In the pancreas, when outflow ducts are blocked, secretions accumulate in the glandular parts to give rise to pancreatic cyst.
Cysts can be both benign and malignant. Malignant cysts are formed because of cancerous cells. When there are cancer cells, commonly always there is an excessive secretion of fluid which ends up in the formation of cysts. Malignant cysts have multiple thick half walls inside the cavity partially dividing it into various compartments. The outer wall of malignant cysts is usually very vascular. This outer wall may or may not have irregular protrusions. Few malignant cysts secrete specific markers which are used in the assessment.
A benign abnormal growth of smooth muscle tissue is known as fibroids. They form mainly in the walls of empty viscera in the body. A very major example can be uterine fibroid. Fibroids may cause in twos or threes or as clusters. If they are too many in amount, the condition is called leiomyomatosis. Fibroids are very rarely cancerous. A malignant fibroid is known as a leiomyosarcoma. Uterine fibroids are one of the commonest kinds of tumors in female gender during reproductive age. Majority of the fibroids are asymptomatic. Large fibroids may have surrounding structures and impair the contraction of smooth muscle tissues from which it arose.
What is the main difference between Cyst and Fibroid?
- Cysts are fluid filled while on the other hand fibroids are solid tumours.
- Cysts may forms from epithelial tissue whereas fibroids form from smooth muscle tissue.
- Cysts may be cancerous while on the other hand fibroids are cancerous in very few exceptional cases.