Acids are very found in our daily lives, from the drugs we use to the food you eat. We will first explain what are acids then give the difference between organic and inorganic acids.
Acids have the following characteristics
They form conductive solutions of electricity because when ionizing they release ions responsible for this process;
They change the coloring of certain substances, in this case the indicators ;
They have a sour taste, as is the case with vinegar due to the acetic acid present.
They are compounds that in aqueous solution ionize and produce the hydronium ion H 3O + or simply H +as only cation. This theory was proposed in 1887 by Arrhenius, a Swedish chemist, and was based on the electrical conductivity of the ions in solution.
Some indicators are used to verify whether a substance is acidic or not through its coloration that changes due to the hydrogenation potential of the solution and the most known and used are: phenolphthalein solution, litmus paper and universal indicator paper. In laboratories we can also find the pH meter which is an equipment used for more precise and accurate measurements. Some indicators can be produced at home as is the case of purple cabbage juice.
Acids can be classified according to the number of ionizable hydrogens (monoacids, diacids, triacids), the presence or not of the oxygen element (hydrides or oxyacids) and finally according to their strength. Its formula is formed by a positive part which is always H + followed by a negative charge group or atom. Then the general formula H x A where the number of hydrogens varies in such a way that the sum of the charges of the molecule is equal to zero, since it must be electrically neutral.
Discovered by the Swedish chemist Carl Wihelm Scheele, organic acids make up a group of substances with acidic properties that have carbon atoms in their formula.
Inorganic acids are hazardous acids which, if ingested, can lead to death.
Examples of inorganic acids:
- Hydrofluoric acid (HF) – It has the property of corroding the glass, being used to make recordings in crystals and glasses;
- Nitric acid (HNO 3 ) – Used in the manufacture of explosives such as dynamite and TNT;
- Hydrochloric acid (HCl) – In the impure form, this acid is marketed as “muriatic acid” and is mainly used for cleaning floors or metal surfaces prior to welding. Component of the gastric juice, the HCl confers a pH suitable for the action of the digestive enzymes .
- Sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) – Used in the manufacture of dyes , inks, explosives, paper and automotive batteries.
The main differences between organic and in organic acids .
Inorganic acids have no carbon while organic acids do.
Organic acids are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvent while inorganic acids are soluble in water and insoluble in organic solvent.
Organic acids are usually weak acids but inorganic acids are strong acids. (Read more about different between weak and strong acids)
Organic acids most of them have a biological origin, whereas inorganic acids do not their orgin are from mineral or inorganic compounds.