The enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts , ie they accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed or become part of the products of that reaction . All reactions that occur in the body have been mediated by enzymes, so it is clear that enzymes have a wide variety of functions in living organisms.
Among the functions of enzymes is to promote the digestion and absorption of nutrients , from the food ingested: digestive enzymes break down proteins , carbohydrates and fats into assimilable substances.
In this sense it is said that enzymes are very useful in cases of abdominal bloating, gas and digestion in general very heavy. They also produce the inhibition of inflammatory processes and favor the recovery of blows , as well as help eliminate toxins and harmonize the immune system.
Conditions for enzymatic activity
Enzymatic activity, however, is performed with different efficacy according to certain conditions that may exist in the body. For example, a higher concentration of the substrate or a higher concentration of the enzyme increases the speed with which the enzymatic reaction occurs, although to a certain extent.
On the other hand, an increase of 10 ° C doubles the speed of the reaction, but after a certain limit the heat becomes counterproductive with the enzymatic activity. In addition, the optimal pH of the enzymatic activity is 7 (except in digestive enzymes, located in the acidic context of the stomach).
The classifications that are made of enzymes vary between those that compare their complexity, those that analyze their cofactors or those that are involved in enzymatic activity:
The hydrolases are those that catalyze hydrolysis reactions, while the isomerases are those that catalyze reactions in which an isomer is transformed into another. The ligases catalyze the joining of molecules, while lyases acting reactions adding or removing links. The oxidoreductases catalyzing redox reactions (electron transfer facilitating) and transferase catalyze the transfer of a group of one substance to another.
Enzymes in industrial processes
There are many industrial processes that are tied to the normal functioning of enzymes. The alcoholic fermentation and other products for consumption , while many reactions involved in worlds like construction depend on them.
Occasionally, enzymes are used for medical purposes, intended for the treatment of areas of local inflammation.
Here are some examples of types of enzymes with some of their functions, biological or industrial.
Examples of enzymes and their functions
- Trypsin: Breaks the peptide bonds adjacent to arginine or lysine.
- Lactase: Used in the dairy industry, it prevents the crystallization of concentrated milk.
- Gastrin: Produces and secretes hydrochloric acid, while stimulating gastric mobility.
- Dipeptidase: Producer of two amino acids.
- Chymosin: Coagulates milk proteins in the cheese industry.
- Lipase: Provides fatty acids, provided that I act in an alkaline medium, with previous action of bile salts.
- Secretin: Segregates water and sodium bicarbonate, in addition to inhibiting gastric motility.
- Glucose-isomerases : Allows the use of high fructose syrups in the production of sweet foods.
- Papain: In the brewery, it is used to liquefy malt paste.
- Vasoactive intestinal peptide : Increases blood flow and secretes aqueous pancreatic fluid.
- Sacarase: Produces fructose and glucose.
- Fiscina: Important in the softening of meats.
- Carboxypeptidase: Separates the terminal carboxy amino acids .
- Bromelain: Involved in the production of hydrolysates.
- Deoxyribonuclease: Produces nucleotides, with the DNA substrate.
- Enkephalin: Inhibits the secretion of pancreatic enzymes and instetital motility.
- Somatostatin: Inhibits the secretion of hydrochloric acid.
- Amylase: Provides glucose in the stomach and pancreas, if it acts in an acidic environment.
- Lipoxidase: In the bread industry, it improves its quality and produces a very white crumb.
- Pepsin: Produces peptides and amino acids in the stomach, a very acidic medium.
- Ribonuclease: Produces nucleotides, with the RNA substrate.
- Whole glucagon : Inhibits motility and secretion.
- Pectinases: In the beverage industry, it improves the clarification and extraction of juices.
- Tannasa: It converts glucose into fructose, in addition to avoiding darkening and unpleasant flavors in some drinks.
- Ptialina: Provides monosaccharides and disaccharides , if it acts in a moderately alkaline medium.