Chemical compounds are substances formed by two or more elements interrelated, thus giving rise to an entirely new and different substance. According to the type of atoms that make up these compounds, we can speak of organic and inorganic compounds:
Organic compounds are called those containing mainly carbon and hydrogen atoms, in correlation and composition with other elements. This type of compounds have covalent bonds(between nonmetallic atoms) of few elements (from two to five) and they are of great complexity, existing around 10 million compounds of this type. They give origin to life and are secreted by living beings.
The inorganic compounds , on the other hand, do not usually contain carbon atoms, nor hydrogen-carbon bonds (typical of hydrocarbons ), and their atoms can be linked by ionic bonds(metallic and non-metallic atoms) or covalent bonds. These substances can contain multiple elements of any provenience from the periodic table and are good electrical conductors .
Examples of organic compounds
- Methanol (CH 3 OH) . Known as wood or methyl alcohol, the simplest alcohol that exists.
- Propanone (C 3 H 6 O) . The common solvent acetone, flammable and transparent, with a characteristic odor.
- Acetylene (C 2 H 2 ) . Also called ethyne, it is an alkyne gas lighter than air and colorless, very flammable.
- Ethyl ethanoate (CH 3 -COO-C 2 H 5 ). Also known as ethyl acetate or vinegar ether, used as a solvent.
- Formol (CH 2 0) . Used as a biological material preservative (samples, corpses), it is also known as methanal or formaldehyde.
- Glycerin (C 3 H 8 O 3 ) . Glycerol or propanotriol, is a substance intermediate product of alcoholic fermentation and digestive processing of lipids.
- Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) . The basic unit of energy of living beings is a monosaccharide sugar.
- Ethanol (C 2 H 6 O) . Ethyl alcohol, present in alcoholic beverages, fruit of the anaerobic fermentation of sugars with yeast.
- Isopropanol (C 3 H 8 O) . Isopropyl alcohol, isomer of propanol, becomes acetone when oxidized.
- Acetylsalicylic acid (C 9 H 8 O 4 ) . The active compound of aspirin: analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory.
- Sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ). The most common of carbohydrates : table sugar.
- Fructose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) . The sugar in fruits maintains an isomeric relationship with glucose.
- Cellulose (C 6 H 10 O 5 ) . Main compound of plant beings, serves as a structure in the plant cell wall and as an energy reserve.
- Nitroglycerin (C 3 H 5 N 3 O 9 ) . A powerful explosive is obtained by mixing concentrated nitric acid, sulfuric acid and glycerin.
- Lactic acid (C 3 H 6 O 3 ) . Indispensable in energizing processes of the human body at low oxygen concentrations, the production of glucose via lactic fermentation.
- Benzocaine (C 9 H 11 NO 2 ) . Used as a local anesthetic, although its use in infants has secondary effects of high toxicity.
- Lidocaine (C 14 H 22 N 2 O) . Another anesthetic, used profusely in dentistry and as anti arrhythmic.
- Lactose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ) . Formed from galactose and glucose, it is the sugar that gives its energy charge to the milk of animals.
- Cocaine (C 17 H 21 NO 4 ). A potent alkaloid derived from the coca plant and synthesized to produce an illegal homonymous drug.
- Ascorbic acid (C 6 H 8 O 6 ) . Also known as the important vitamin C of citrus fruits.
Examples of inorganic compounds
- Sodium chloride (NaCl) . The common salt of our diet.
- Hydrochloric acid (HCl) . One of the most potent acids known, is one of those secreted by the stomach to digest food.
- Phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ). An acid reactive to water, resistant to oxidation, evaporation and reduction, used in the soft drink industry.
- Sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ). One of the largest known corrosives, is widely used in various types of industry and is produced in large quantities in the world.
- Potassium iodide (KI). This salt is widely used in the photography and treatment of radiation.
- Potassium dichromate (K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ) . Orange salt, highly oxidizing, capable of causing fires when coming into contact with organic substances.
- Silver chloride (AgCl) . Widely used in electrochemistry and laboratories, due to its very low solubility in water, it is a crystalline solid.
- Ammonia (NH 3 ) . Also called azano or ammonium gas, it is a colorless gas rich in nitrogens with a particularly repulsive odor.
- Cuprous sulfate (Cu 2 SO 4 ) . An insoluble salt, used as a disinfectant and dye of metal surfaces.
- Silicon oxide (SiO 2 ) . Commonly called silica, it forms quartz and opal, and is one of the components of sand.
- Iron sulfate (FeSO 4 ). Also known as green vitriol, melanterite or green clover, it is a blue-green salt used as a dye and as a treatment for certain anemias.
- Calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ). Long used as an antacid and in the glass and cement industry, it is a very abundant substance in nature, like rocks or as shells and exoskeletons of certain animals.
- Cal (CaO). It is calcium oxide in any of its forms, widely used in construction mixtures as a binder.
- Baking soda (NaHCO 3 ). Present in fire extinguishers or in many dietetic and medicinal products, it has a very alkaline pH.
- Potassium hydroxide (KOH) . Potassium soda, used in the manufacture of soaps and other solvents.
- Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) . Called caustic soda or caustic soda, it is used in the paper, fabric and detergent industries and pipe unclogs.
- Ammonium nitrate (NH 4 NO 3 ) . A powerful agricultural fertilizer.
- Cobalt silicate (CoSiO 3 ) . Used in the production of pigments (such as cobalt blue).
- Magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) . Epsom salt or English salt, when water is added. It has multiple medical uses, especially muscular, or as bath salts.
- Barium chloride (BaCl 2 ) . A very toxic salt used in pigments, steel treatments and fireworks.