Specific heat, sensible heat, and latent heat are physical quantities:

## Specific heat

The specific heat of a substance is the amount of heat that must be supplied to a unit of mass of that substance to raise its temperature by one unit. That amount varies so much depending on the temperature of the substance before applying heat. For example, one calorie is required to increase water to one degree by room temperature, but only 0.5 calorie is required to increase the temperature of ice by one degree to -5 degrees. Specific heat also depends on atmospheric pressure. The same substance at a lower atmospheric pressure has a lower specific heat. The examples below are valid for a temperature of 25 degrees and a pressure of 1 atmosphere.

## Sensible heat

The sensible heat is the amount of heat that can receive a body without affecting its molecular structure. If the molecular structure does not change, the state does not change (solid, liquid, gas). Since the molecular structure does not change, a change in temperature is observed, therefore it is called sensible heat.

## Latent heat

The latent heat is the energy (heat) required for a phase change substance (state). If the change is from solid to liquid, it is called heat of fusion. If the change is from liquid to gas, it is called heat of vaporization. When heat is applied to a substance that has reached the temperature at which it changes state, it is impossible for the temperature to rise, but simply changes state. For example, if you continue to apply heat to boiling water, it will never exceed 100 ° C. Depending on the substance, latent heat can usually be measured in calories per gram or kilojoules per kilogram (KJ).

## Examples of specific heat

Water (in liquid state): 1 Calorie per gram to increase 1 ° C

Aluminum: 0.215 calories per gram

Beryllium: 0.436 calories per gram

Cadmium: 0.055 calorie per gram

Copper. 0.0924 calorie per gram

Glycerin: 0.58 calories per gram

Gold: 0.0308 calorie per gram

Iron: 0.107 calories per gram

Lead: 0.0305 calories per gram

Silicon: 0.168 calories per gram

Silver: 0.056 calorie per gram

Potassium: 0.019 calorie per gram

Toluene: 0.380 calories per gram

Glass: 0.2 calorie per gram

Marble: 0.21 calorie per gram

Wood: 0.41 calorie per gram

Ethyl alcohol: 0.58 calories per gram

Mercury: 0.033 calorie per gram

Olive oil: 0.47 calorie per gram

Sand: 0.2 calorie per gram

## Examples of sensible heat

Apply heat to water between 1 and 100 ° C

Apply heat to tin less than 240 ° C

Apply heat to lead that is below 340 ° C

Apply heat to zinq below 420 ° C

Apply heat to aluminum that is less than 620 ° C

Apply heat to bronze that is below 880 ° C

Apply heat to nickel below 1450 ° C

## Examples of latent heat

Water : latent heat of fusion: 80 calories per gram (it takes 80 calories for one gram of ice at 0 ° C to turn into water), latent heat of vaporization: 540 calories per gram (it takes 540 calories for one gram of water at 100 ° C turns into steam).

Steel : latent heat of fusion: 50 calories

Alumino : latent heat of fusion: 85 calories / 322-394 KJ; Latent heat of vaporization: 2300 KJ.

Sulfur : latent heat of fusion: 38 KJ; Latent heat of vaporization: 326 KJ.

Cobalt : latent heat of fusion: 243 KJ

Copper : latent heat of fusion: 43 calories; Latent heat of vaporization: 2360 KJ.

Tin : latent heat of fusion: 14 calories / 113 KJ

Phenol : latent heat of fusion: 109 KJ

Iron : latent heat of fusion: 293 KJ; Latent heat of vaporization: 2360 KJ.

Magnesium : latent heat of fusion: 72 calories

Mercury : latent heat of fusion: 11.73 KJ; latent heat of vaporization: 356.7 KJ.

Nickel : latent heat of fusion: 58 calories

Silver : latent heat of fusion: 109 KJ

Lead : latent heat of fusion: 6 calories; Latent heat of vaporization: 870 KJ.

Oxygen : latent heat of fusion: 3.3 calories

Gold : latent heat of fusion: 67 KJ

Zinc : latent heat of fusion: 28 calories