The name of tourism is given to the set of activities carried out by individuals during their travels and stays in places other than those in their usual environment for a consecutive period of less than one year. Generally, the tourist activity is carried out for leisure purposes, although there is also tourism for business reasons (better known for business trips) and other reasons.
Tourism, as we know it today, was born in the 19th century following the Industrial Revolution, which made it possible to travel with leisure, leisure or social or cultural reasons. Previously, the travels were related more to the commercial activity, the migratory movements, the conquests and the wars.
Tourism brings many economic advantages to a country as it boosts employment and wealth, but like any other economic activity, if it is not planned it ends up having a series of disadvantages to your environment a number of social and economic impacts and many times irreversible. We will now take a look at all the advantages and disadvantages of tourism.
Advantages of tourism
- Bring in foreign exchange , revenue and a considerable income: Vacationers leave huge sums in shops, hotels, restaurants. In some countries of the Caribbean Sea, the income from tourists is up to 20% of the country’s economy.
- Integration Families: This is one of the most important thing about tourism generate since it allows the dialogue, interaction and entertainment of the family on vacation.
- Development and exploitation of natural resources: This is done in order to grow and provide new options for the tourist . In order to keep tourist entertained countries usually develops waterways , wildlife area , rainforest etc.
- Safety: policies are put in place and applied for tourists to feel safer when they go on vacation, whether by land, air or sea.
- Conservation of historic and tourist attractions: In order to improve and preserve history for the tourist and the community. Often, states seek to preserve the most beautiful and attractive places for tourists by creating national parks and reserves .This means that a businessmen cannot cut down forests, dig channels in such places to build a house and offices.
- Creation of new infrastructure: This is accomplished in every place you want to use as a tourist destination, since the improvement of these places is necessary in order to provide excellent service.The recreation sector requires a developed infrastructure: hotels, restaurants, shops, theaters, a network of roads and railways, transport. This gives a huge incentive for the development of local business. In addition, the living standards of the local population are rising, because they also need quality roads, new hospitals. All facilities built even for short-term events such as the Olympic Games, will last for many more years.
- Job Creation: Thanks to large investments made to carry out these tourism projects, many people benefit such as engineers , construction workers . To serve the tourist hotels need cooks , maids , tour guide , managers just to name a few.
- Development of new technologies: in each passing moment is the creation of new technological tools, making it necessary to be always up to date.
- Generates great social, cultural and religious changes: This is a very contradictory factor. The natives of the country that offer tourism usually have to adopt to be more friendly and open to visitors . This allows them to learn new cultures and become more friendly and social. They would learn new world views , ways of dress , behaviours , foods and festivities.
- Development of Tourism and Hotel Management: For the good development of tourism it is necessary to specialize and use all possible human resources in order to provide a high quality service and obtain recognition for it.
- Support the economy of rural areas with few resources: Governments usually rescue many villages that were completely abandoned in order to beautify the environment for tourist. Rural tourism is an activity tourism that takes place in a rural area , usually in small towns . It discloses the natural riches, gastronomy and customs of many areas of a country.
Disadvantages of tourism
- Culture lost of communities : In the time of change that is subject to a particular place or community, habits are often affected and loss of these is noticed. Read in more detail about the culture impact of tourism.
- Bad coverage :can have a country in high season tourism being dammed . The country and many industries would immediately start to lose money from their investment . Transport by air and sea cover becomes very poor leaving the entire country at a stand still.
- Environmental Pollution: This is a very important factor as it is destroying places and species, often by misuse of tourists and managers.The main one is a large influx of visitors. Tourists visit a huge number of places on cars, boats and small planes. All these vehicles increase the emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere.
- The costs of excessive occupancy: By implementing new projects it is destroying natural areas.
- Lack of planning causes season sex tourism: This is a factor that affects all of us because our children have become a commodity.
- Lack of community awareness: This makes the community often overly take advantage of tourists, regardless thanks to them, we have many benefits. Sound pollution.
- Sound pollution :sustainable tourism can also be detrimental to the local population, with sustainable tourism the tourists are much closer to the local population. This can also be detrimental, and cause annoyances and dislocations within the local community. This means that the culture of the local population must always be taken into account and respected in order to prevent conflicts.
- Impact on ecosystem :It surprises animals and birds with flash of photos.Chasing the animals at the safari and giving stress.If collection of plants and insects is over, it may lead to extinction.For all the reasons above, many animals migrate to other places, forests or parks depopulation source. Erosion of the soil (many people walk and stomp on the same place.)The seeds of plants that followed the tourist’s clothing spill, shedding buds and possibly changing vegetation. When landing on the island in the Galapagos Islands it seems to wash the mud on the back of the shoes.I hurt coral by diving and snorkeling.
- Increase in crime / prostitution, deterioration of security.Drunkenness increases and quarrels become frequent.Shoplifting and increased theft ,drug problem , prostitution and begging increases.
- Invasion of privacy:Indigenous churches are rare, so there are a lot of people going to visit them, but it is a violation to take pictures during worship invading these people privacy. Tourist usually take picture of families during their daily activities and even during their sleep in hammock .
- Increase inflation :For example, if tourists who came for a cup of coffee at the airport or cafe would pay $1 as tourism increase in that country the price would probably increase to $5 . This price will be cheap for a tourist but for local people it is twice the price. Some countries have prices for tourists and some for local use.Land and property prices can also increase .Example Japanese would have bought huge sums of vacation homes in Hawaii and Australia. The local contractor gradually picked up values ??for the Japanese. Thanks to local people it has become a handsome amount but for the local middle and upper class also have to pay the same handsome price if they want to move to these same areas as the tourist.
- Contamination of soil and water by trash that often leaves walkers.